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Organizational behaviour (OB) has been one of the most researched topics in the literary concerning behaviours of the employees within the organization. Thus literary articles have defined this term as the study that establishes the behaviour of individuals within the parameters of an organization. Usually this also encompasses the study of how to individual behave independently and how they relate within a large group of people. Thus this study has been articulated to be an interdisciplinary field which focuses and centralizes on elucidating on individual and group behaviour, organization dynamics and interpersonal process. The main theme and purpose of organizational behaviour is to glove a better understanding on the facts which influence in the organization setting individuals and group’s dynamics, the essence which leads to individuals and groups and the organizations of the same setting to become more efficient and effective as exemplified by Ash (1992).
Recent studies have identified that organizational behaviour studies as the special new field which draws heavily from the component angle of psychological and sociological sciences. This also attempt to outline factors which fosters scientific fields like the ergonomics, psychometrics and statistics. Further this topic also embraces and embarks on other topics of interest which are complacent with organizational behaviour, this mainly concern with behaviour theories which are culturally bound, self-management and self-leadership, work and family conflict and unethical decision-making as echoed by Bisel and Keyton (2007).
The study of organisational behaviour usually embarks on analyzing an organization from diverse perspectives and view points, method and level of evaluation. Presently majority of the literary articles usually submit organizational behaviour and divide it into three perspectives symbolic, modern and postmodern. Another angle which this study is also detailed historically, especially in the context of American and European curricula, is amid micro organizational behaviour (Hatch, 2000). This usually is referred to within the context of organization setting the individual and group dynamics. Macro strategic management and organizational theory are also another factor which scouts the study of the entire organizations and industries, how they cope and contingencies, structures and strategies which governs them.
Other experts and scholars have also designed and incorporated interest in meso which fosters primarily the interest within the context of power, network and culture of the individuals networks and organizations unit. This also analyzes the field level which deals with the study of how in the organization the whole population within these parameters relates (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1997). The only difference in the European curricula is the fact that although the same dynamic of distinction are harboured they usually minimally are reflected within the departmental division.
Usually when there is interaction within the organization many factors usually are formulated and come into play. Usually in recent modern study of organization, the emphasis usually embodies of how to understand and also attempt to model this factors. Alike modernist social sciences the study of organizational behaviour attempts to seek control, explain and predict (Schermerhorn, Et al, 2008). This is further explain that there controversies within the ranks of ethics of governing workers behaviours, this also encompasses the manners in which the workers are subjected to. Here organizational behaviour is also linked up to industrial psychology, together these two functions have been accused of being a tool of the powerful which subjects workers into servitude scientifically. Usually this accusation despite organizational behaviour proper moral usually also play a role in the organizational development through promotion of organization productivity, and also on individual and group productivity, commitment and satisfaction.
Among the main positive factors and main goals which lie within the context of organizational behaviour, are that this function outlines the organizational theory and attempt to elucidate on the fact that should be executed to provide and develop best organizational life conceptualization. Usually it has been advised that any organization or individual who is authorizing organizational behaviour should carefully have in mind the assumption levels contained in this subject and the main concern should be for the best of the organization; this should be triggered toward mangers and administrators as echoed by Herzberg (2003).
Key concept of organizational behaviour
Some of the concept which have been fashioned through by theorists exemplifies that to deny the organizational behaviour research merit can have a very negative effect both scholarly and practically in an organization. This has been outlined to be because of organizational behaviour has advanced the assumptions and led to better understanding of the occupational world and thus this has prompted changes to be induced in work places in organizations. According to Schein (2004) this factors have brought about concerns which embraces the importance of organizational behaviours as an essential tool for very effective and efficient management. Further he articulates that when organizational behaviour is studied some of the key concept which is essential for exploration is diverse. Some of the major key concepts which the author details in his work include diversity, communication, organizational learning, organizational culture and organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Organizational Behaviour Concept
When contemplating on how well to tackle and understand the meaning as well as the importance of organizational behaviour, then it is best to have in mind how this concept operates. Organizational behaviour usually details and dabs on how the working condition of an individual or group can be enhance in an organization to suit in the requirement of effective and efficient production and meeting of the objectives set by this organization as noted by Herbert (1997).
According to Robbins (2004) organizational behaviour is the integral study which analyzes the behaviour of individuals and groups in an organization. Through this venture the organization is hence forth referred to as the collection of people respectively working as a faction toward one collective agenda or goal. Thus this elucidates the fact that organizational behaviour usually authenticates and governs employees to effectively and efficiently project toward a common goal.
Organizational culture is one of the major backbone concepts of the study of organization behaviour in an organization or corporate institution. Bowditch and Buono (2007) confirmed that organization culture is a structure of shared values, beliefs and actions which usually is developed within the scope of an organization and usually governs the member’s behaviour. There are two concept which details organizational culture external integration and internal integration. External integration concerns itself with what is needed and how the goals and objectives shall be completed. Internal integration centralizes on creation of collective identity and researching for means which can foster working and relating together available matching method.
Multiple Levels of Analysis
The major main essential reason relating to this interdisciplinary approach is fashioned in the concepts of organizational behaviour usually capacitate numerous level of analysis. Each and every level of analysis hold the key for better understanding of the individual behaviour within the organizational set up. This is outlined because individuals always act within the environment which they co-exist and this is inclusive of both other people and objects. Usually the taskforce is usually influences their environment and thus are also influenced by the same environment which they cohabit; usually this outlines the organizational behaviour study to be a multi-level endeavour. Usually for the organizational behaviour study to be well defined and understandable this is basically subdivided into diverse level this include; individual level, group level and organizational level as echoed by DeCenzo and Robbins (1999).
Individual Level of Analysis: Scientifically at the individual level of analysis, usually organizational behaviour encompasses the doctrine of study which capacitates the study of creativity, turnover, learning, perception, behaviour, cognition, task performance, cooperative behaviour, ethics, motivation, and deviant behaviour. In this scale of analysis usually organizational behaviour is usually categorized upon psychology, medicine and engineering. For instance, the analysis of organizational behaviour in the individual level usually details as the main crux on the factors which impact the different overhead lighting such as absenteeism and productivity (Latham, 2007).
Group Level of Analysis: On the adage concerning group level of analysis organizational behaviour usually fashion the study of the group roles, intra- and intergroup conflict and cohesion, interpersonal communication, powers, network, norms and dynamics. Usually within this level of analysis organizational behaviour constitutes socio-psychological and sociological science (Staw, 2008). For instance, this study scouts how diverse personality types relate with the diverse styles of leadership and the outcome levels functions within the scope of group level analysis.
Organization Level of Analysis: Within the scope of organizational level of analysis, usually organizational behaviour constitute of the study which encompasses factors like cultural diversity, organizational culture, inter-organizational conflict and cooperation, external environmental forces, technology, organizational structure, and change. On this stage of analysis anthropology and political science are drawn upon from organizational behaviour (Bisel & Keyton, 2007).
Organizational Behaviour Management: Organizational behaviour as a widely researched topic usually details and dabs as the main essence to outline for the human resource management professionals, and equip them with essential tools and information complacent with selecting, training, and retaining of employees in a design which projects the organization toward a beneficial end for the maximum benefit of both the individual employee and the organization. This was generally outlined by Hitt, Et al (2005) when they articulated in their article “Organizational Behaviour: A Strategic Approach” that “the most important assets in an organization are people.” Further more this article concludes that the study of organizational behaviour exemplifies on how the organization can capitalize on on the effectiveness main assets for the benefit of the both functions.
Further more other sources articulate that organizational behaviour usually dwells on factors which convey it as an importance tool which is requisite to perk up productivity and profit. Usually through this angle scientific principles have been bundled in this venture to advance the performance of the employees. Usually these attempts to advance the scientific principles that perk up the performance of the employees. Further more this advancement elevate from a simple understanding of the human behaviour general principles within the organization setting on issues such as; the employees stress, health and safety, employees satisfaction evaluation and feed back system, deployment of monetary and nonmonetary incentives. Some other factors also include means which capacitate development of the procedures for self management, behavioural modelling, and programmed instruction and computed instructions. Usually on the down side of events this study also attempt to elucidate scholars on the analysis of system which mainly coins the ideology of tasks are executed, evaluated and measured (Bowen, 2008; Robbins, 2001).
There diverse and numerous trends fostered by the study of organizational behaviour. Majority of these trends usually centralizes on the research efforts. For instance, majority of the research carried out have basically mostly centralized on this topic on a group level analysis neglecting the individual level which is the crux of this analysis. This misconnect has been envisioned on empowerment where it has been fully induced and researched at the individual level on motivation construct, this has proposed that analyst have encompassed empowerment with the intent of better elucidation on diversity in group performance (Bowditch & Buono, 2007). Similarly analysts have centralized on evaluation level elevation to exemplify personality characteristics and organizational behaviour from the scope of individual level to the height of group level.
Another recent development trend which has been documented mainly focuses on personality as the main individual factor and the level of performance in the group setup. Usually this is generated from the movement which gravitate to amore raw organization design, augmented span of superiority control and sovereign work designs. All this factors are important and applied to project the role of personality in an organization toward achieving the desired goals and objectives (Hofstede & Gert Jan, 2004).
Personal traits actualizes on being the determinant fact of the results which are succumbed during the production process to the individuals such as stress, performance, cooperative and deviant behaviour. Some of the personal traits are fostered in this study include propensity toward self monitoring, proactive personality, experience openness, individualism and collectivism. This also compasses on behaviour forms which are constructive and harbour nature of orientation of change is also analyzed. Usually it has been articulated that behaviour forms are usually very proactive in nature and usually attempt to progress the situation from the angle of the individual, group and organization as noted by Schein (2004).
For instance, some of these behaviour traits usually include factors like taking initiatives, innovations, issues selling, proactive socialization and constructive change oriented communication. This usually is outlaid because organizational behaviour is still the central concern of human resource managers and thus all kind of surveys and analysis have been deployed to improve these personal traits. This has been mainly focused by the active field on both the management and academia to facilitate the importance of having clear meaning and pin pointing the benefits derived from this study. Personal traits have been the fundamental aspects which usually are the focus which encompasses this study and employed into management techniques (Scott, 2007).
Model of Organizational Behaviour
One of the major areas which mostly apply organization behaviour and are considered the crux of this study is as follows. Researchers have articulated that when men are employed in an organization they join as individuals. Thus they are representation of the mighty atom of that particular organization. However, majority of these men are just ab initio and lie behind the shadow and influence of others behaviour. This is how model of organizational behaviour are formulated. However, human resource manager’s n the quest to shape this influenced behaviour and remodel them in accordance with the organization policies and requirements. There have to be a series of motivational assistance deployed to facilitate this agenda. Therefore it has been exemplified that there is dire need for ascertaining individual motives and promote their realisation for the best remodelling exemplified by Latham (2007).
According to Hatch (2000) notes that this is further explained that for this intervention of remodelling to be fully fit to be operational there has to be structured organization forms. The development of these forms would ensure that the policies which are set up within this implementation are adhered to all the time. When these forms are developed and they are well structured, and accepted by the task force this will help mitigate any conflict which may arise. This conflict usually arise due to the fact that organizational behaviour has not been enforced and the policies governing this initiative are neglected or resisted by a few deviant employees which influence others into rebellion. Through arrays of structure which basically employ the best foot forward toward achieving the best solution based behaviour for the organization would add in profit and productivity. One of the major component which have been derived at here is the working atmosphere is tolerable to all employees, gender and age status (Herzberg, 2003.
Limitation of organizational behaviour
There are a few major draw backs which are experienced within the rank and height of the benefits associated with organizational behaviour. Organizational behaviour critics have articulated that when this component is practiced, it only assist the individual to grasp human behaviour in an organization setting only. Further they articulate that the individual when it comes to the domestic front they fail terribly are their behaviour in this setup is seriously question concerning ethical moral behind their judgement on home affairs (Bowditch & Buono, 2007).
Organizational behaviour has also been exemplified to be very reclusive, exploitive and selfish. This usually is displayed when the emphasis falls on motivation, efficiency and productivity. Analyst have declared that when these factors come into play then competition among work mates arises and this arouses conflict from other task force successfulness. This concurs on the critics facts that organizational behaviour does not contribute much to interpersonal relationship as echoed by Lawrence and Lorsch (1997). Thus results to injurious outcome which develops to jealousy, harassment, back stabbing which result from the reward offered top the successful few. Thus many analysts have associated organizational behaviour check with carrot and stick method of leadership.
One of the major confusion which human resource when applying organizational behaviour fail to determine is that this does not curb conflict but only attempt to control this conflicts. Usually what happens is the managers apply harsh measures which tend to interfere with the workers right when this theory does not mitigate conflict within the organization (Bisel & Keyton, 2007).
Importance of Organizational Behaviour
Usually in any organization the assumed main goal is the success of that particular faction. However, there are many other small factors which also envelop the success of the organization. Like what does a winning organization encompasses and what does it take this organization to achieve this point? Traditionally organization only centralized on success and neglects those who fashion and scout this success which leads to profits. Usually the people that helped the organization perform were graded based on budgets, technical skills and productivity. According to Schermerhorn, Et al (2008) this centralized that the task force was for profit making only and their welfare was none the concern of the employers. Organization behaviour has now overturned this around, which emphasizes on how the organization must be updated on how the rapid the business culture is changing from the fast paced competitive market. Nowadays organizational behaviour is given the first priority for the well being of any organization. This has facilitated that organizational behaviour to be a training and development piece of intricate. Nowadays soft skills are also requirement of managerial training and in most organizations they are complacent (Ash, 1992).
These skills (managerial soft skills) are essential in eradicating conflicts within the organization and this usually attained through organizational behaviour. This has been viewed as being the perfect tool to managing the most effective team which would result to benefiting both the organization and the individuals as noted by DeCenzo and Robbins (1999). On of the guarantee of the success of organization behaviour is set on zoning employee’s creativity, motivation, personality and adaptability in a fashion which is polite and accommodating while still empowering.
When managers are able to outlay these skills then the organization objectives are met without many limitations. The careers of the managers become successful and less stressful when this are4 fully implemented in the system of the organization. This is mainly because the roles of managers are changing with advancement in the business environment; this is taking a sensitive edge. This now requires that managers know how to handle the task force and how to deal with the conflict which arises within the context of the new environment. Through this initiative the overall objectives and goals of the organizations are met (Adams, 1989).
The organization backbone relies on the taskforce and how well they relate with the organization and other team members dictate the overall outcome of the organization goals. Organizational behaviour details to the human resource managers how to subject the task force into meeting the requirement set for the success of the organization without harassment and prejudice, but through motivation and empowerment as the perfect tool of organizational behaviour. Organizational behaviour is an important tool which every organization must encompass to achieve the ultimate goals and objective while maintaining the environment are suitable for the taskforce.