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Chapter 1

1.0 Introduction

There has been a lot of concern over the Iraq War and the governance of Saddam Hussein by the United Nations and the United States. It resulted in the policy formulation and development of resolutions to help calm the situation in Iraq (Weeks 2010). This study, therefore, focuses mainly on the period since 2001 when efforts towards observance of these resolutions were established. It was as a result of Iraq forming resistance to abide the directives given.

This study presents several issues regarding the Iraq War and the situation of Iraq before and after the intervention of the United States. This chapter represents the basis of this study by providing background information regarding the situation in Iraq. Background information gives a clear cut on the issues to be developed in the study by providing the learner with the information that necessitated the undertaking of the study (Dower 2010). Development of research objectives provides the researcher with a ground to evaluate the sources and the approach to be used in coming up with the research. Research questions are also developed in this chapter. The focus of the research will be to address these questions with the attempt to solve the issues that the study is purposed to meet (Defronzo 2010).

The second chapter of the dissertation provides the researcher with the existing literature of the issues at hand. In this chapter, a review will be made regarding the situation at Iraq and the effects of the United States policy on the Iraq War. The chapter will address the issue of partition emanating from the Iraq War (Pauly & Lansford 2004). Certain individuals advocate for the breaking up of Iraq, thereby forming three or more states. These states include Kurdistan, Sunnistan, Shiastan, and any other state deemed appropriate (Clarke 2004). The advocate of partition may indirectly cause ethnic division among the citizens of the state. It was one of the issues feared by the countries that proposed an extension of period before the military intervention was sought. The advocates of partition believe the adoption of autonomy may result in better governance and proper coexistence of the states. The approach devised towards achieving autonomy includes decentralized federation, consociationalism or confederation (Wilson 2004). The division of the state into three or more parts through ethnosectarian is what is advocated by these people. A consociationalist believes that interaction of individuals from different groups result in a conflict. Giving autonomy to these individuals will be a basis for a conflict resolution. The chapter also provides a view of the integrationists to the issue of Iraq (Davis 2006). They advocate for a central government that is stronger and anti-partition. These individuals advocate for the existence of a civil society with power of governance at the central position and for the existence of a federal state that is strong and there is no division along the ethnosectarian lines (Feith 2008). Dispute resolution and conflict management in a situation where different groups of people get into contact is what is advocated by integrationists through a civil society approach. The analysis of political and public opinion will be given in this chapter. It provides an opportunity to seek understanding on what the people want for their country and themselves. Through this analysis, the study will provide the viable information having taken into consideration varied opinions. The chapter also gives a review and analysis of the implications of the Iraq War and the United States policy (Iraq Study Group et al 2006). The review of literature is necessary to ensure concrete evidence to the study.

Chapter three of the dissertation provides the methodology employed in undertaking the study. In this chapter, an outline of the method used and the extent of information are provided. The findings and analysis of the study undertaken are given in Chapter four. It provides the basis of recommendations given in the study. This chapter presents information that has been obtained in the research and analysis concerning the same information given. The chapter on conclusion links up all the information that has been discussed in the whole study.

1.1. Information Background

There rising conflict between the citizens of Iraq implied that they have no capacity to solve their differences and contain the armed group activities. It necessitated interference from neighbors and other states. Iraq has been observed as a nation that bears terrorism and has the base where weapons of mass destruction are made. The situation became worse during the reign of Saddam Hussein (Packer 2005). Many states encountered terrorism attack from Iraq nationals either for revenge reasons or malicious destruction. These malicious actions by Iraq caused suffering to many nations and states and even resulted in partition within the state. The actions by Iraq and the news concerning existence of weapons of mass destruction forced the United Nations Council to come up with a resolution in order to calm the situation (Chomsy, Achar & Shalom 2007). The resolution was also meant to safeguard the world against incidences of terrorist attack that may lead to mass destruction. In year 2002, the Security Council of the United Nations came up with a resolution 1441. The resolution gave Iraq a last opportunity to observe the obligations on disarmament lest they faced dire consequences (Bank, Stark &Thorndike 2008).

In March 2003, there was launching of war against Iraq by the United States. The first strike was made at a place where President Saddam of Iraq and top lieutenants could have been meeting (Hancock 2007). On the 17th of March, President Bush of the United States issued an ultimatum to Hussein either to vacate the country or to face a military conflict. There was resistance to the entry of the United States troops into Iraq. However, by April 14 of the same year, most of the major centers of Iraq population had been brought under the control of the United States troops (Kinzer 2006). During February 2003, the military build-up intensified in the Persian Gulf as British Prime Minister together with President Bush reiterated that there was little time left for Iraq to ensure full cooperation with security inspectors from the United Nations. However, Germany, China, France, and Russia had a different opinion since they thought it was prudent to allow more time for the inspection process (Potter & Sick 2007).

There was defiance on the part of Iraq against 17 resolutions made by the Security Council of the United Nations. The United States administration alongside its supporters had this as the basis of the intervention. The argument fronted was that Iraq had disagreed to cooperate voluntarily  according to the United Nations resolutions suggested and only force remained as the main resolute (Peters 2003). All the resolutions by the Security Council required completely declaring and eliminating mass destruction weapons. There was a possibility of endangering security nationally and undermining the credibility of the United States nationally if there was failure to act in ensuring full adherence to the resolutions (Rampton & Stauber 2003). Skeptics of this resolution including the foreign critics argued that there was an exaggeration of Iraq threat by the United States and that more time would have been allowed by extending the inspection deadline. A resolution was made by the United States Congress giving authorization to the President to make use of the armed forces in ensuring the national security of the United States is maintained (Pfiffner & Phythian 2008). Protection is required against the threat that Iraq poses and ensuring the resolutions passed by the United Nations concerning Iraq are adhered to.

Analysts are highly concerned by the implication of the war. Ethnic fragmentation and instability in Iraq are some of the issues that these analysts fear. However, the plans by the United States on the governance of Iraq after the war have been established though the action of the United Nations is yet to surface. Debate emerged regarding the situation of Iraq after the war with some analysts giving optimistic views, while the others were observed to be pessimistic (Hannity 2004). The Iraq war has led to the emergence of several concerns among them the humanitarian situation. Baghdad and several other major cities have been the point of concern by analysts who opt for an extension of the period offered before military force is used to calm the situation.

1.2. Objectives of the Study

1.         To find out the impact of the Iraq War.

2.         To determine the effect of the United States policy in the Iraq War.

3.         To establish the social-economic and political implication of the Iraq War.

1.3. Research Questions

1.         What are the implications of the Iraq War?

2.         What is the effect of the United States policy on the Iraq War?

3.         What implications does the Iraq War have on the socio-economic and political aspects?

1.4. Relevance of the Study

The study is essential and useful particularly to students undertaking political science. The various conflict issues presented and the mechanism developed to address these issues provide an insight to governance. Researchers in this field of study may find this information relevant and useful as a secondary source of information. The research will form a reference point for researchers and academicians by way of adding the existing knowledge to this area. The study will also form a substantial base for policy makers who seek to ensure a state free of conflict. Thus, the study is a core in developing policies in conflict management.

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