Question 1

Describe, compare and contrast the two police misconduct review models known as the Internal Affairs Model and Civilian Review/ Complaint Model.

The increased rate of police misconduct has called for the need to intensify the control and review of various factors to assist in reducing these cases. Two models have been developed to act on parallel platforms. The first model is the internal affairs model where the chief of police has the responsibility of establishing mechanisms to investigate and discipline police officers who are implicated with misconducts. Internal administration of the police department is responsible in this case to check and act on misconducts of its officers. The second model is the Civilian Review where citizens are involved through civil societies to review misconduct of police officers in public domain. This model is different from the other in that members of the public are highly involved (Albanese, 2005).

Which of the two methods is considered more independent and why?

Civilian Review model is the most independent as it is conducted at the public domain. There is no internal influence as there are other players apart from police officers. It is not easy to compromise those who are involved in this review (Bator, 1963).

Question 2

Define and discuss the concept of Whistle blowing.

Whistle blowing is the process through which an officer discloses information which can be used to implicate an individual with an illegal act including misuse of authority, corruption and misuse of public- resources. The concept is applied in police department where police officers are expected to blow whistle on their fellow officers. This was introduced with the aim of ensuring that the police department is cleaned against increasing cases of criminal acts (Helmer, 2002).

Consequences for the police department when an officer “blows the whistle on another officer”

The consequence of whistle blowing on the police department is that checks and balances will be installed in the department.  This is after an officer check on what another officer conduct himself while they are at work. On the other hand, the application of the concept may lead to disunity in the department as enmity may arise among many officers.

Consequences for the whistle blowing officer

There are various possible consequences of Whistle blowing to the whistling officer. Some of these consequences include being shunned, treated as an enemy, and been ignored when in need of a back up. These consequences are aimed to frustrate the officer. To some extent some have been injured, killed or threatened (Helmer, 2002).

Utilitarianism judge

Whistling is an ethical issue where an officer takes moral authority to provide information of illegal acts of fellow officers. Utilitarianism judge Whistle blowing as the obligation of officers as it is part of their role to assist in criminal justice for all free from discrimination.

Ethical formalism

Ethical formalism views Whistle blowing ethics as a due process which has been legally enforced.

Egoism judges

On the other hand, egoism judges the concept as a role which must be performed. An officer in this case may feel that he is been undermined when an illegal acts takes place under his or her watch, disclosing the information makes their ego to remain high that they have played their part (Albanese, 2005).

Question 3

Describe and discuss ethical issues that can arise in interrogations.

Interrogation is a key process which is used y police officers and prosecution team o establish the truth and implicate an individual with a certain criminal act. There are various issues about the interrogation process including how and who should e responsible to undertake the process.

Acts that a law enforcement officer CANNOT do during an interrogation

There are three key acts which should be avoided while undertaking an interrogation process. The first prohibited act is torturing or applying cruel methods to the suspect. Secondly, sexually harassment to the interrogated suspect or witness should be avoided at all times. Lastly, acts such as bribes and threatening with the aim of influencing the outcome of the interrogation process should e avoided (Albanese, 2005).

Utilitarianism view interrogation tactics

The use of physical force during the interrogation process is an ethical issues addressed by utilitarian, formalist and feminist ethicist. Utilitarianism views the use of physical force as the option of last resort. It is the responsibility of an officer to apply all the acceptable method to gather as much information as possible, but not physical force.

Ethical formalist view on interrogation tactics that involve the use of physical force

Formalist ethics views the use of law as an immoral act. This is because of the fact that the suspect is not yet proved guilty (Bator, 1963).

Feminist ethicist view interrogation tactics that involve the use of physical force

Feminist ethicists insist on due care of a suspect while in hands the police. The suspect should not be physically and emotional injured as they are disadvantaged at the hands of the police. 

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