Chapter 3-1

Toys can be used to develop masculine and feminine nature in boys and girls respectively. Razor A2 Kick Folding is an example of a boy toy that can be used to develop masculinity. In this case, a boy using this toy will develop strong hands and legs. Dolls are feminine toys, which can be used by girls to entertain them and develop feminine nature. Girls like dolls, which prepare them to develop tender care for children and pets at home.

Chapter 3-2

Videogames, films, television, or the internet are some of key agents of negative socialization. Participation in videogames among children and adults takes much time, which is substantially used for socialization. These individual sometimes turn to be addicted to these games and, thus, lack time to socialize. Films are attractive and entertaining to individuals who are involved in watching them. While watching a film, one concentrates on what is happening in the film and forgets about interacting with other people. It is clear that time which is spent on watching these films reduce the amount of time for socialization. In addition, some films expose some negative aspects of some communities, individuals, and gender based issues which negatively affect the way in which people interact within a given society. Televisions are turning to be a point of reference to people of different ages, races, tribes, and social classes among other aspects. In some cases, some television stations’ presentations are biased in a way that they entice some individuals to have some negative perception about others. The internet is another agent of negative socialization. Over the years, the number of people using the internet has increased for various reasons and purposes. Social media is one of the key applications of the internet today. People from different age groups, sex, races, tribes, and social stratification use social media for interaction. The use of Facebook, MySpace, and Tweeter among others has led to negative socialization, as it has substantially replaced the traditional face-to-face interaction which is the most effective socialization approach. It is, therefore, clear that videogames, films, television, or the internet has some negative socialization aspects, and, hence, the argument is substantially correct.

Chapter 4-1

Horton Cooley is a prominent sociologist whose concept “looking – glass self” is highly applicable in social studies. According to him, an individual grows as a result of interpersonal interaction and attitude toward others. Perception is an essential aspect when it comes to people’s approval of others behavior and perception. The concept is significantly strong, as it acknowledges the fact that society is an interrelated and interworking perception-based element. According to the concept, an individual’s percept towards others starts at early childhood and continues towards maturity. Cooley’s argument is strong and relevant, as it has been used as a point of reference by several other sociologists while developing their concepts. The acknowledgement of the fact that other people affect people’s moves through their sentiments and perceptions demonstrates that he upheld the fact that man is not an island.

However, the argument can be criticized, as it seems to be incomplete. This is because it overlooks the role of in-groups and out-groups. It is clear that as people converge within a group that is based on attitudes and expected behavior, there is the possibility that members of the group can also diver and diverge. The looking glass approach undermines the concept of in-group relationship and stability. In addition, the approach is criticized for its failure to uphold the influence drives from self-categorization about others, which is based on self-judgment and desired behavior. Individuals developed social identity that is based on relevance which the others have on their lives.

Chapter 4-2

The 20/20 news tries to expose some aspects of nature-nurture and stereotypes. The clip exposes a social learning episode where individuals learn certain behaviors through social interaction with other people around them. In this case, John Dovidio’s argument has been supported substantially in that the role of nurture has been substantially exposed at the expense of nature. Stereotypes also determine how people relate with others. In some cases, an individual who is associated with a certain community or a social group that is associated with a certain stereotype tend to be sidelined in one way or another.

Chapter 7-1

There are various agents of socialization which have been identified and studied. Socialization is a significant aspect, as it assists in making human social nature complete. One’s race, ethnicity, religion, sex, sexual orientation, or social class are some the of socialization factors. Race is a broad socialization agent, as it may comprise individuals with other broader aspects including tribe, gender, and social classes. For example, individuals from Black-African may come from different ethnic groups as well as different countries. As a result, race is not a strong socialization agent except for some reserved cases. Ethnicity is a strong socialization agent. This is due to the fact that people from a given tribe tend to converge and interact. Their communication is effective due to the use of similar language. In addition, some aspects, such as living environment and social-economic aspect, tend to unite individuals from a given ethnic group. Sex and sexual interaction is another strong socialization factor. In this case, there are individuals who tend to socialize with individual with different sex and sexual orientation. For example, some boys and men tend to socialize with girls and women respectively. Social class is another aspect influencing human socialization behavior. Individuals in a certain social class tend to interact often, as they address certain issues in their class, and, hence, socialization among such members is high.

Chapter 7-2

Some drugs that used to be legal have ganged into being illegal due to various reasons. First, quite a good number of people have resolved in their abuse. For example, in the past, the consumption of marijuana was legal in many countries. However, as a result of the misuse and lack of control, its consumption has become a social concern, and, hence, many law makers have resolved to make them illegal with the aim of controlling them. In addition, such drugs have led into increased crimes and application of violence, as dealers try to gain control of their market. 

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