|← Integrated planning matrix||Managerial Decision Making: Creating a Performing Business Team →|
Information and communication technology (ICT) connectivity in addition to Internet is extremely extensive in businesses of every size. Like is the case with every technology, small businesses are slower than big ones to accept new ICTs. Possible small business reimbursement and firm in addition to sector-specific strategies force the adoption and employ of ICTs. Additionally, sectors are increasingly worldwide and subjugated by large firms and the organization of their values manacles and operations form opportunities for enterprises. Major reasons for non-adoption are inadequate applicability and small incentive to modify business models as soon as returns are unclear. Businesses face universal barriers to adoption together with faith and business security concerns, and confrontations in areas of managing skills, technical capabilities, production and competitiveness. The matters for administration are to promote appropriate business surroundings for e-business and ICT uptake for exampleto disperse broadband, improve competition, as well as target programmers to conquer market failures to the degree that they are needed areas likeskill configuration and particular information. Governments have a variety of e-business plus Internet use programmes. On the other hand profitable considerations and possible returns are the major drivers of petite business adoption and commercial use.
A sound business environment is essential for firms to prosper and profit from ICTs. This comprise an apparent, open and aggressive business structure, obvious self-governing rule of law for the entire firms, simple set up and closure of businesses, transparent, straightforward and accessible business regulation, and equivalent and stable lawful treatment for nationwide and cross-border business.
Payment system is one of the applications that are used over the web. . With the enlargement of retail commerce on Internet, new electronic imbursement methods are developing, for example, amongst the new technologies in e-business is CMC’s E-Wallet As the novel payment methods are developing quite fast, it is flattering highly hard for the end user to run his payment apparatus. Internet wallets assist the customer in managing his expense instruments.
A figure of electronic business applications allows end-users to buy goods and services by means of electronic wallets. The significance of Internet wallets is raising as buyers transfer their purchases to the Internet. Wallets advantage each member of an online business. The center function is to allow customers (commerce or individual) in retail to disburse online more expediently and accurately than is or else possible. This is completed by storing the user’s imbursement instruments (characteristically credit or debit card, e-cheque, and addresses.) confidently within the wallet for simple use. In addition, they can as well provide business management for users.
In reaction to the needs of the electronic business community, the CMC Electronic
Wallet (CEW) has been put in place to support virtually unlimited diversity of payment mechanisms, set of rules, and electronic business operations for safe online transactions. Once a consumer decides to create an online purchase, CEW direct the customer through the transaction by helping him decide a payment technique and hide the difficulty of how the imbursement is executed.
CEW developed by means of the Java programming language, and runs on whichever computer platform, realizing the Java philosophy “Write once, run anywhere.” CEW is extensible, offering a framework in to which fresh payment methods can be incorporated with no trouble. CEW works with acknowledged Web browsers and holds imbursement card accounts plus digital certificates.
As a Web services based service, the Enterprise Resource Planning is a critical platform through which e-commerce is carried out. From management point of view, Enterprise Resource Planning is an amalgamation of Business Management Practices, Specific Business Objectives and Information Technology. In simpler terms, ERP is a massive software architecture designed to support various distribution of information across all the functional units that are geographically scattered but belongs to one corporate house. Business management executives have adopted the ERP system in order access a comprehensive overview of the complete organizational execution which is useful in making productive decisions. Effective management of organizational centralized data repository is very essential in order to obtain all the supply information which can be tuned into fragmented applications that can operates within the organization computing program (Johnson 2000, 2).
Originally, Enterprise Resource Planning referred to manner in which well established organizations plan to use the wide available resources. Formerly, ERP system was used by large industrial enterprises. The adoption and the use of the ERP system have undergone drastic transformation over the past few decades. Currently, ERP can be applied to any type of business entity operating in any kind of field and of any magnitude.
The Modern ERP software encompasses wide range of organizations functions which can be integrated into single unified database repository. For example, organizational function such as Supply Chain Management, Finance, Manufacturing Warehouse Management, Human Resources, Customer Relationship Management and Logistics were all formerly stand unaided software functions. These software applications housed database and their respective network. Today, all these software applications can all work under Enterprise Resource Planning software (Johnson, 2000, 10).
As an implication, there are risks involved in implementing an ERP System in an e-commerce The availability and the suitability of the sophisticated ERP system have eventually delivered the dream of effective database management in many organizations. However, the organizations’ dreams of ERP system usage has been shattered because of inability by most of the organizations to successfully incorporate the software into their business operations. Implementation of ERP differs from the ancient traditional systems and other design objects. The modern ERP system is different from the ancient traditional systems in terms of scale, complexity, the costs and the impacts it has on the organizational business operations. The traditional systems would often create impact on the limited areas of business entity whereas the modern ERP system impacts the entire business entity.
Most of the ERP projects involve reengineering of various business practices, an issue drive by organizations’ desires to adopt the best practices that matches the modern business needs and demands. Implementation of ERP systems involves a lot of risks which business entities should factor when during its incorporation into business practices. Identification of risks involve in ERP implementation has been subject of many technological researches. In order to maximize the probability of success of ERP implementations, there is need to identify risks associated with the process son as to enable the organization establish appropriate controls that can reduce the risks.
Organizational operations are affected by its strategy, structure and processes. Introduction of a new technology, new process or measures should be in harmony with these organizational aspects. Lack of alignment between the entity strategy, structure, culture, and process and the selected ERP system poses potential risks. According to Grabski et all (2005, 3), Enterprise Resource Planning system by its own cannot support or improve organizational performance, unless all these aspects are restructured. In most cases, an ERP system is incorporated into business operations as a business initiative hence there is need to restructure various organization operational processes. For the implementation to be successful, the organization should clarify its strategic ways of doing business i.e. should clearly understand how the business of being in the business and constancy purpose .
We based architecture has led to emergence of new work schedules such as tele-comutting, and need to outsource labor. However, an implication has been how to ensure that the employees work as required. Consequently, the issue of employee monitoring has been effected. According to a CNN report by Keller, a survey carried by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) on employees in 722 companies shows that 74 percent of the employers agreed on monitoring their employees as they work on the internet; 72 percent check employees’ e-mails, while 51 percent review phone calls. The major reason for doing this is to ensure productivity and safety in the workplace. Employee surveillances at the workplace has been met with controversy where some people feel that is an unethical practice that infringes privacy rights; others feel that it should be performed but with a lot of responsibility from the employers’ side. Most human resource managers feel that the practice is eligible fro the company’s, employees’ and client’s good. From time to time an employee may use the company’s internet for personal interests for example shopping while others email informal messages to greet or offend fellow workmates (GAO, 6). To an employer such activities waste potential time for productivity and need to be identified and banned. Realistically, long period of work can be tiresome and an employee may seek a break to informal work behavior during work time, management should therefore install soft wares that can limit time spend on social networks or completely ban sites that the employees should never visit during working hours. Moreover, the employer should also invest in technology that can detect personal emails rather than professional ones, exchanged during the working hours. The software should be able to detect these messages without the administrator having to read the employees’ private messages. In this way e-monitoring helps in improving productivity without necessarily intruding and spying on ones private lifestyle. Another way to ensure that the monitoring practice is ethical is to ensure that legal procedures that define when and how surveillance is done, are put in place. The employers should abide by the legislation that requires employers to inform the employees on the kind of surveillance and make them agree to the terms and conditions before undertaking employment (Cox, Goette &Young, 5).
As an implication to web services, Information and communication technology (ICT) and e-business uses give many benefits across a broad range of intra- and inter-firm commerce processes and dealings. ICT applications progress information and comprehension management within the firm and can lessen transaction costs and enhance the speed and dependability of transactions for equally business-to-business (B2B) as well as business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions. In spite of these advantages, rapid enlargement in businesses’ acquisition and sales over the Internet has so far to materialize. E-commerce is rising although still accounts for a comparatively small share of overall commerce. On-line dealings are mostly B2B and home, and less B2C or cross-border.
Another critical aspect of web based services is the networking issue. Network infrastructures promote rollout and use of superiority infrastructure at reasonable prices. Broadband connectivity is a solution part in ICT development, adoption and employ. It hastens the participation of ICTs to financial growth, facilitates novelty, and promotes competence, system effects and optimistic externalities.
Digital products and information services are an ever more important part of economic activity and they present significant opportunities to small businesses. Government and the personal sector have important roles in aiding the growth of content availability athwart all platforms and heartening local progress of new substance, including content from communal sources.
Skill upgrading: inadequate ICT skills and commerce skills are extensive impediments to effectual uptake once adoption decisions are completed. Governments have main roles in providing essential ICT skills in obligatory schooling, and a significant role in combination with education institutions, trade, and persons in providing the structure to encourage ICT skill configuration at higher levels, in vocational training and in continuing lifelong learning.
It is also critical to take into account the benefits of web based services to an organization and its partners. At inter-firm stage, the Internet and e-commerce have large potential for plummeting transaction costs and rising the pace and dependability of transactions. They in addition reduce inefficiencies consequential from lack of co-ordination among firms in the rate chain. Internet-based B2B interaction and real-time communication can reduce information asymmetries between buyers and suppliers and build closer relationships among trading partners. In the B2C background, the Internet and e-commerce can be effectual tools for improved communication. A business Web site that offers information on products, services or know-how can improve the superiority of a firm’s services to clientele and attract new customers.
Further, there are several barriers that may affect smooth electronic data interchange among partners. Ordinary barriers include: inappropriateness for the type of commerce; permit factors (accessibility of ICT ability, qualified workers, network communications); price factors (costs of ICT apparatus and networks, software as well as re-organization, and continuing costs); and safety and faith factors (safekeeping and dependability of e-commerce systems, doubt of imbursement methods, lawful frameworks).
The adoption and employment of Internet and e-business tactic depend on region characteristics. The products of services akin to tourism, which are insubstantial in character and have elevated information substance, are well-suited for buy via the Internet. Additionally, in sectors like tourism and parts of trade and economics, where firms recognize a senior level of bazaar opportunities, they tend to entrust extra resources to e-commerce. In areas like textiles and automobiles, where the association between firms beside supply chains is extremely close, on-line deal systems are seen as a considered necessity for reformation B2B transactions.
Barriers to Internet commerce too differ among sectors. In tourism, inappropriateness of systems and the supremacy of relatively petite agents with less ability impede efficient Internet transactions along the deliver chain, particularly for B2B transactions. In the retail area, the difficulty of confidence construction seems more vital. In manufacturing area, such as textiles and automobiles, recognized closed EDI systems with high setting up costs structure the employ of electronic business by SMEs.
Policies have moved over time as businesses and economies have moved from intent on e-readiness, connectivity and consciousness, to dispersal and use, and are touching towards grown-up e-business strategies which mix together broad policies for the commerce surroundings with polices for scrupulous areas like competition. Spotlight on facilitating SME contribution in B2B manufactured goods and area value chains, counting technology impartiality and interoperability amid dissimilar systems.