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There are many reasons that people give as to why they use drugs to excess. They include; the pleasure they get as they like the feeling that the drug provides, some take because friends and family are using them, the like of the test, the relieve of tension and relaxation, so that they can be part of religious ceremony, some say that they are lonely, drugs relieves boredom and pain relief, to assist in problem solving and forgetting the worries, since they have become dependent on the drugs hence feel ill incase they stop. Lastly it helps them to do things that are unable to do as drugs provide courage.
What are the theoretical explanations of this common human behavior of excessive dinking?
The theory on binge drinking explains that some individuals end up in binge drinking deliberately. Many of them on the other hand finds themselves looked up in patens of thinking and behaviors that would rather change. Others finds themselves drinking excessively after having started with the purpose of just drinking one or two while others drink to ease the anxiety that occurs in social life and then finds that the condition spirals away seemingly getting out f their control. Both men and women have been affected by drinking. Virtually they have been drinking excessively for many years and now some of them hold positions in offices and even some are married but the behavior they started years back is still gong on, while some old thoughts others same old feelings and Patten.
The binge drinkers usually imagines that they will drink or at times hopes that they won’t whenever they are going out but in both cases excessive drinking is just fixed in their minds unlike these who are the non-binge drinkers who never think or worry about drinking. The problem with the minds of people is that, it doesn’t process negation unconsciously.
The theoretical explanation given by draughts and drunks explains that frequent patronage of Traven’s and bars contributes much too excessive drinking. There are studies that consider the relationships between Traven patronage and drinking behaviors have mostly assumed the latter to be the variable that is independent but with no specific theoretical explanation. Some theories reverses by explain that the factors mostly offered to explain Traven patronage that is heavy for example the need to socialize by youngsters, males that are unattached do not contribute much to the reasons of excessive drinking.
What are some of the factors, both past and present?
Some individuals think that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians susceptible to the misuse of substance due to their incapability to tolerate alcohol. This myth has no scientific foundation. The real causes of problematic drug use continues with the indigenous group is a complex mix of historical and current political and social factors. In the history, the rations of alcohol were being distributed to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as the return to the labor. In the history of the colonization of the Australian, the indigenous people underwent events that were dramatic, for example violence, the dispossession of land, separation from family members through force and the discrimination that was really severe. All these problems lead Aboriginal Australians to use drugs and alcohol to excess in the past.
In the recent past, the systematic living standards that are poor, the issue of unemployment in the country as a whole has too many being frustrated and idle. The issue of absence of appropriate medical and education facilities and other essential facilities, if present, then the services are not in most times culturally appropriate or the language used is inappropriate. All these problems have lead to Aboriginal Australians to use drugs and alcohol to excess in the current times. If any other community of any ethnic background is placed in the conditions as the Australian community, they will also drink alcohol to excess to give them support, means of escaping and finding some solace. This is because the hardship that faced and still faces the mass population living in the communities, the understandable reason, drinking comes to be the means of escaping.
The excessive drinking was copied from the European settlers Australia with the aim that they could be accepted into the society of the whites. Before colonization the indigenous society fermented light alcohol from natural plants while others traded it with traders of Macassan. Yet it was not till European colonization that a culture of heavy drinking made its introduction in Australia and substances like wine become readily available. In the early colonization times, excessive drinking was a common phenomenon. By the way in the history of mankind, European settlers drank more alcohol per head than any other community.
Rum was used as a form of currency-with the convicts always getting rum rather than money. Many Aboriginal laborers received payment in the form of alcohol and tobacco. Further more the whit settlers provided alcohol to Aboriginal as payment for sex. Alcohol-induced prostitution had effects that were harmful on child rearing and increased the rate of birth yet European fathers were rejected.
Describe one drug-focused treatment approach in detail. Explain the process, the aims of the treatment, and what the person using drugs or alcohol excessively would have to do to make the treatment effective.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, this is the therapy that assumes that faulty thought patterns cause maladaptive behaviors and responses that are emotional. The treatment concentrates on changing thoughts so that psychological and personality problems can be solved (Crespigny Et al. 2003). This therapy is also goal-oriented, therapeutic approach and treats behavioral and emotional disorders as maladaptive leaned responses is able to be replaced by the ones that are healthier with training that is appropriate. It integrates the features of behavior modification into traditional cognitive approach restructuring. The therapist works together with the client to identify the behaviors and thoughts that are resulting to distress and change these distressful thoughts to readjust the behaviors. In certain cases the patient might be having fundamental central believes, known as schemas, which are flawed and need modification.
The aim of cognitive-behavioral therapy is changing client’s unhealthy behavior via the cognitive restructuring and the use of behavior therapy techniques. It is the treatment options for many mental disorders. It includes depression, dissociative identity disorders, eating disorders, generalized anxiety disorders, hypochondriasis, panic disorders and others (Virtualmedicalcentre, 2008).
So that the destructive thoughts are combated, the cognitive behavior therapist starts by assisting the client identify the beliefs that are problematic. This stage is also known as functional analysis. It is vital for learning how thoughts, conditions and feeling are able to contribute to maladaptive behaviors. Though the process can prove to be difficult especially to patients struggling with introspection but it leads to self-realization and insights that are vital parts of the treatment process.
The second part concentrates on actual behaviors that are leading to the problem. The client starts to learn and put in practice new skills that then puts into use in real world conditions. For example suffering from drug addiction may start to practice new coping skills and rehearse on how to avoid dealing with social circumstances that may trigger a relapse.
This process is gradual that assist one make steps that are incremental towards change of behavior. For instance a lady suffering from social anxiety may start by simply margining herself in social conditions that provokes anxiety. Then the client might star conversational practices with these who are friends, family members and acquaintances. By gradually working towards a larger goal the process looks less daunting the objective seems easy to attain.
What the person using drugs or alcohol excessively has to do to make the treatment effective is that they should have behavioral issues that specific that they wish to address and objectives for the therapy should not be to gain into the past (Shand Et al. 2003). They should also be willing take an active role in the treatment process.
Describe one individually-focused treatment approach in detail. Explain the process involved, the aims of the treatment, and what the person using drugs or alcohol excessively would have to do to make the treatment effective
Christ focus treatment is the addiction that ids unique process of treatment that involves the principles of Christianity in handling cases of alcohol and drug addiction cases has continually reared their ugly minds in the lives of many individuals all over the world. The teachings of Christ are the ones concentrated on in a typically Christ treatment.
It is vital to indicate that this treatment is championed by religious counselors called Chaplains. Their duty is to ensure the entire process of treatment has the trait of Christ in it. Usually chaplains do engaged the addicts in counseling and prayer sessions with bide of helping them recover from the aspect of addiction. On the other hand Christ focus treatment also engages in other methods that are usual to treatment of addiction cases.
The process involved in this treatment is that before anything else the addicts are groomed into several principles of Christianity that actually will help them in recovering from their habits that are worse. The basic principles used are love, sowing, forgiveness and reaping. The principle of forgiveness and love are usually enforced on all addict since it is believed that most of them live like enemies to themselves as a good number of them hate themselves for their situations. They live in self pity and blame. So before dealing with addiction itself such stances need to be tackled first. In loving themselves and desist from pity, the addicts are encouraged to look at themselves from the positive point of action as it is contained in the Bible.
In encouraging the addicts to forgive, they are encouraged to forgive themselves in the first place and then forgive other people that might have done them wrong. This is in fact one of the best Christian principle that is used when dealing with addiction manner. Once an addict is able to forgive himself and further more free his mind in the process of forgiving others, this individual indeed has opened the door addiction treatment that is very effective. The process of recovery of such individuals who are able to abide by Christian principles is normally very fast.
For this process to be effective, the addicts must be ready to follow abide to the principles of Christianity. They have to love themselves and others, forgive themselves and these who wronged them.
This program has a rehabilitation program with higher objectives. The gives the chance to the addicts to get their lives back to that right truck and get goals and inspiration that are in real sense worth looking a head regardless of hopelessness of life encountered by the addict (Russell Et al. 2008). Many are given hope and stronger sense of surviving and succeeding after addiction.
How would this individually-focused treatment approach need to be modified if the person using drugs or alcohol was an Indigenous Australia?
One of the improvements should be individual counseling. At the stage of transformations each Australian client has different psychological issues which are the cause of addiction. It is only after uncovering the motive behind the alcohol use is an individual going to move forward in the process of healing. Through the process of incur operating individual counseling with group counseling sessions, that transformations targets at reaching the inside of an individual teaches and instills the individual with the knowledge of that self-esteem , worth and confidence originate from within. The Christ focused treatment should centre dedications and devotions to helping individuals overcome an addiction issue. Their counselors should help should assist people understand the foundation of their problems and triggers that are behind addiction hence give the person other options that are positive in life. With individual counseling a person can be assisted in the trust building and working towards collecting the pieces together that were scattered by substance abuse.
Another improvement needed is the introduction of self help support groups in the process of dealing with addiction cases. This is basing on the fact that self-help groups have become integral part of treating emotional issues, mental health problems behavioral problems and dealing with stressful conditions especially to those who are addicted (Gerada & Ashworth, 1997). It has been noticed that self-help and the support groups are on resource that is valuable for the process of empowerment and recovery.
Self-help groups try to bring together individuals who happen to have common experiences. During the process, the participants do share experiences, providing extensive understanding and support and help each other to find new ways that can help cope with the problems that may lead to addictions. There exist support groups for almost every concern including alcoholism, overreacting, and various mental illnesses among others.
These self-help groups will be groups or meetings that involve individuals with similar needs and wants, are affiliated by the consumer, survivor or any other lay person, are able to assist people in dealing with stressful situations events, operating in an informal, free-of charge and non-profitable. They will also be able to provide education and support and lastly they will be voluntarily, anonymous and confidential.
The most self-groups that are prominent are these that deal with alcoholism and others that follow the 12-step model and smart recovery.
They should also introduce group counseling. This session may at first look as if it is overwhelming and frightening, but after some times the client will be able to realize that there exist many others going under the same problems like him, they have the same fears and the desires (McDonald Et al. 2002). This should be conducted under careful guidance of a skilled Christ focused counselor, individuals get to learn from others during weak moments and celebrate the milestone and successes with others which is an important factor of healing and recovery.