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Introduction;

Abortion is a term that is commonly used and refers to the termination of pregnancy by getting rid of a fetus from the uterus and sometimes may result to death. An abortion can be done if there is complication during pregnancy or can be terminated intentionally.

Abortion has been practiced all over the world and is known to have a long history. There are various methods used in abortion and they include; herbal abortifacients, Utilization of sharpened apparatus, physical distress and various traditional methods. All other the world, there have been an outstanding and conflict-ridden public disagreement over the moral and lawful issues of abortion .In some countries, abortion is legal while other views it as a crime. Occurrence of abortion has reduced globally; introduction to family planning methods and contraceptive services has augmented. It was noted that, abortion incidence in the United States reduced by 9 percent from 1997 to 2004.

History of abortion

Historically, people could get rid of pregnancy by use of herbs, sharpened apparatus and other various methods. In most countries, doctors were not allowed to get rid of pregnancies. A Greek physician suggested that people could abort by jumping, carrying heavy goods and excursing heavily. During the middle period, abortion was tolerated since there were no laws against it.

Types of abortion

There are two types of abortion and they includes; Spontaneous abortion and Induced abortion

Spontaneous abortion is also known as miscarriage, this is the exclusion of a fetus or embryo because of unintentional distress or natural reasons before the 23rd week of gestation. Majority of abortion occurs due to inaccurate duplication of chromosomes and can also occur due to environmental issues. Between 11 percent and 53% of pregnancies, end in clinically miscarriage (Zinga, 144).

Induced abortion

This is when an abortion is done intentionally and carried out in many ways. The method chosen depends mainly upon the gestation period of the fetus, which augments in size as it grows. Particular processes might also be chosen due to legitimacy, regional accessibility, and doctor-patient favorite.

Abortion methods

Medical and Surgical are the common methods of abortion but they are other traditional methods that are used. In medical abortion, pharmaceutical drugs are utilized and are normally successful in the first trimester of pregnancy (Hormina 56). In Europe and United States approximately 11 percent of the abortions are Medical abortions. Combined procedure comprises methotrexate then a prostaglandin, in United States misoprostol is commonly utilized.

In surgical abortion, MVA (Manual Vacuum aspiration) abortion consists of eliminating the embryo or fetus by suction and using a syringe which is manually done. Other methods might include utilization of traditional herbs although this was practiced in early days. Utilization of herbs can cause serious health problem for instance organ failure.

Health risks

Surgical abortion is said to be safer if performed early before the 22nd week. Women usually feel minor pain during first-trimester abortion process. In a 1978 study of 2,309 patients, 98 percent were found to have pains during abortion.

Abortion causes mental health although no proofs have demonstrated the connection between abortion and mental problem. According to APA (American Psychological Association), various mental problems have been observed after abortion.

Incidence of induced abortion

The incidence and causes of abortion especially induced, differs world wide. It has been noted that about 47 million abortions are carried out internationally every year. Of these, 27 million are known to happen in areas where abortion is accepted while the other 21 million occurs where the process is not accepted (illegal). Some nations, for instance Belgium 11.3 per 100 recognized pregnancies, have a lesser rate of induced abortion, while countries like Russia has 61.6 per 100 have a high rate. In the world, the ratio is 27 induced abortions per 100 recognized pregnancies.

Conclusion

Abortion is a term that is commonly used and refers to the termination of pregnancy by getting rid of a fetus from the uterus. There are two types of abortion and they includes; Spontaneous abortion and Induced abortion. Medical and Surgical are the common methods of abortion but they are other traditional methods that are used.

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