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This paper shall outline the health condition of one Mr. W and address five questions detailed below to facilitate and have a conclusion so that the appropriate diagnosis may be applied to the latter. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) usually is transmitted through unprotected sex, needle injection, blood transfusion and direct blood contact with an infected person. HIV usually contaminates the T helper lymphocyte cells in the immune system and also embarks on the central nervous system. When the T helper lymphocyte is affected then the immune system becomes fragile and weak. Then the HIV cells uses the CD$ protein of T helper Lymphocyte to gain entry and reproduces itself infecting all other cells in the victims immune system (Hellerstein & Kotler, 1998).
I. The stage of Mr. W HIV infection
From the diagnosis exemplified on the health of Mr. W it is then possible o articulate that the latter is on the third stage also known as Symptomatic HIV infection. This is because the patient has deteriorating weight loss; symptoms experienced by the patient are deteriorating because of the destruction of the T helper lymphocyte cells. According to Patrick (2000) not responding to antibiotics are also the same symptoms which re experienced in this stage as the immune system is severely damaged by the HIV allowing infection raging from tongue lesions of herpes simplex, esophageal candiasis and a duodenal infection (Grunfield, Et al. 1992)
II. The major complications found in the final stages of AIDS and how they complicate the patient’s nutritional status
Some of the major complication which usually arise in the final stages of AIDS are Pneumocystis Pneumonia, chronic herpes simplex infection affecting the genitals or anorectal, recurrent occurrence of Kaposi sarcoma, invasive cervical carcinoma and chronic cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis, HIV encephalopathy and cases of disseminated non tuberculous mycobacteria infection and HIV wasting syndromes when a patients is diagnosed with this systems then they are fully blown AIDS and can never go back to any HIV stage and the eventuality is death. Usually HIV wasting symptoms are the one which are responsible for nutritional depletion and this progression usually accosts excessive weight loss (Gasparis & Tassiopoulos, 2001).
III. Nutritional therapy goal based on data assessment from the patient’s history
The nutritional therapy goals for patients with HIV should be basically centralized on nutritional status of the patient, and this is evaluated so that the condition of the patient’s health may be emphasized on to reduce severity in the disease. The assessment usually attempts to capacitate infection progression and design a prescription which incorporates the patients self management and education training also known as therapeutic nutrition (Hellerstein & Kotler, 1998). These are usually dietary adjustment which projects the health of the patient to regaining good health and advanced quality of life. From the assessed data the practitioners and the patients are able to administer the appropriate measures to enforce nutritional values which are essential to fighting off infection.
IV. The route of feeding which should be administered to nutritional support
Nutrition depletion is one of the major causes of failing of health among patients diagnosed with HIV. There are many from of feeding which nutritional support can be administered to the patient. This includes the mouth route, enteral route, and the parenteral route. Usually the most preferred route is the mouth, however, due to the severity of the condition that the patient maybe in like the case of Mr. W, then the best route of administering nutrition would be through gastrointestinal tract (Macallan, Et al. 1995). This is because it is the most effective means and safer for the patient and it is cost effective to the patient. Experts have articulated that the nutrients are easily metabolized and implemented through effectively. These supplements assist to maintain amino acid pool homeostasis and also guarantee safety to the skeleton muscle tissues. This mode of nutrients administration is usually associated with reduction of gut related sepsis as exemplified by Macallan and Baldwin, 1993). Due to advancement of technology there has been implementation of choices of formulas, techniques and equipment which supports this route and creates safety measures making it to be the best route of nutritional administration to the nutritional derived patients like Mr. W.
V. List of nutritional supplements which might be induced to alleviate some of Mr. W’s symptoms and boost caloric intake after being able to tolerate a diet again.
There are several nutritional supplements which can be administered to render nutrients support to the case of Mr. W a Stage 3 Symptomatic HIV infection patient. Some of the most effective and advised supplement which should be administered to the stage three HIV patients is Vitamins A and E, zinc, B-vitamins, and magnesium (Rowan, 1985). These are essential because they help the body develop energy and cells which attempts to fight of the disease from depriving the body cell mass and strengthen immunity.
Another supplement is protein which adds energy and improves the functioning of the body. Carbohydrates supplements also assist the protein supplement to provide energy and this usually strengthens the weak immune system. Lastly Nandrolone and Oxandrolone supplement which are usually considered to be steroids which emphasize and adds value to nitrogen balance, strength and lean body mass when mostly induced with exercise (Tierney & Wang, 1989).