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Abstract

It is estimated that about 3% to 5% of children tend to suffer from ADHD. Although experts indicate that initially ADHD largely affected children, currently the disease seems to equally affecting adults. This paper will present a detailed discussion of the disorder entailing information to help understand what ADHD is, its onset factors and the different kind of treatments given to patients suffering from it. Most importantly, the paper will also attempt to find out whether there are greater risks in adults as compared to children. It is very certain that there are differences in the symptoms that affect children and those which affect adults.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a persistent bio-behavioral disease that was initially manifested on children and normally characterized through hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity within a patient. It is not so obvious that those affected with this disease have the above three characteristic but it is usual for one to have at least one of the characteristic. The three listed characteristics can lead to poor performance in academics, both emotional and social functioning difficulties (WebMD, 2010).

According to Harty et al (2009), research indicates that individuals suffering from this disease find it very difficult on paying attention to something without being distracted. When an individual suffering from ADHD and that that doesn’t is compared, then one who suffer from it has a higher tendency of failing to control what he does or says or even in the event of physical activity, the one with this disease may fail to control him or her self. In short it is evident that an individual suffering from ADHD is likely to be more impulsive and restless as compared to the one without.

There are several terms that health care professionals use in describing individuals who are impulsive and restless. These terms are: hyperkinetic disorder, hyperactivity and attention deficit. ADHD can be categorized in three groups. Firstly, there is predominantly inattentive where an individual have a tendency of having difficulties in finishing any given task. More to this an individual may find it hard to follow instructions (Piko, 2006). Secondly, we have predominantly hyperactive –impulsive type where find it hard to be in a relaxed mood they keep on fidgeting and talking a lot. To add on to this persons with this type of ADHD find themselves grabbing thins and speaking where they are not supposed to. Lastly we have the combined type, here the patient seems to have both of the type 1 and type 2 symptoms.

What are the onset and contributing factors of ADHD?

Research from the new Zealand ADHD online group indicates that the onset of this disease usually occur before an individual is seven years old and about 75% of the patients continue to have various symptoms during their adulthood. However, it is evident that the levels of hyperactivity decreases eventual when an individual grows older (Piko, 2006).

It is still not clear about the onset and contributing factors which causes ADHD.  More to this there is evident of a clear variation in the studies carried out involving the brain of an individual who have been affected and that which is not affected. From the various animal studies that have been carried out there is a clear indication of great differences involving the brain transmitters’ chemistry in controlling impulses, planning and psychological flexibility?  

A research carried out on genetic predisposition involving identical twins and sibling indicated that if one of the twins is diagnosed with ADHD the probability of the other twin to be diagnosed with the same disease is 92% whereas when comparing the non identical twins the probability falls between 32% and 37%. In addition to this, there are several other factors that contribute to this condition. These factors include chemical imbalance, brain changes and head injury (Harty et al, 2009).

In chemical imbalance, health practitioners believe that imbalance in the neurotransmitters whose work is to transmit nerves impulses may be a key factor in the development of ADHD (Piko, 2006). On the factor regarding brain changes, it is evident that when the part in the brain that control attention is tampered with it is obvious that an individual will suffer from ADHD. Head injuries especially those that involve concussions can easily contribute to behavioral problems that lead to ADHD.

What are the effects of ADHD in development?

Since ADHD is a behavioral disease it is very evident that the development of this disease can affect an individual in various ways these ways include cognitively, emotionally, socially and intellectually.

In what way does ADHD affect the development of an individual cognitively?

Harty et al (2009) points out that it is so obvious that ADHD affects the development of an individual cognitively. For instance, it clear that this disease causes the development of speech and language disorders. When an individual is not able to communicate clearly with other individuals it becomes so obvious that the level his or her self esteem goes down. This is a clear indication that the disease greatly affects the cognitive ability of an individual.

Other than developmental speech and language disorder, there is evidence of development articulation disorder.  Here a child may find himself lagging behind his colleagues in learning on how to make specific speech sounds. The child may feel out of place and may start to have withdrawal symptoms when it comes to playing with his friends.

How does one become emotionally and socially affected with ADHD?

From our introduction, it is clear that the two main symptoms of ADHD are impulsivity and lack of attention. Patients who are diagnosed with this disease are greatly impaired both emotionally and socially relationship with the other peers. It is evident that children suffering from the disease often may re-appraise when faced with anger or rather tend to get away from such situation without finding any form of solution.

Piko (2006), states that the development of anger and high cases of hostility has largely contributed to emotion and social torture among those with ADHD. Due to these patients find it hard to cope with the others both emotionally and socially. Their self esteem gradually goes down such that in the presence of their friends, they have a certain inferiority complex within them.

In what way does ADHD affect the development of an individual intellectually?

It is so obvious that intellectuals are natured by way of education. ADHD has greatly contributed to lack of attention in classroom therefore poor performance in school. When a child fails to become active during class work this child clearly affects his development as an intellectual. In learning to become an intellectual certain behavioral changes are needed (Harty et al, 2006). For instance, attentiveness during class assists every child in developing his or her intellectual skills.

What are the treatments of ADHD?

Since ADHD is a behavioral disease, the best treatment that can be prescribed to a patient is that a professional counselor who will assist a child or an adult to organize once life. Other than a counselor, there are various antidepressants which are normally used to treat ADHD. When administering these anti depressants it is important that special consideration is given to them. This is important since some of stimulants are known to react badly with medication. It is important that one is able to discus his condition before taking this antidepressants (Harty et al, 2009).

It is good to note that there are constant efforts where medical practitioners are trying to improve treatment (Piko, 2006).  There is greater expansion in knowledge regarding genetics and brain imaging so as to realize the real causes of ADHD and the best treatment for this disease.

Conclusion

It is evident that many children are been affected by this disease. It is therefore important that parents play the role of initially identify the symptoms. This is important since ADHD cannot be physically diagnosed but by learning changes in behavior within your child can act as a diagnosis. It is clear that with good and proper treatment, children suffering from this disease can successfully learn how to live and manage with the symptoms

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