Is it possible to create an ideal society and what does it mean? Ideal society means complete harmony, the absence of conflicts and disputes. Society is an organized group of people united to each other by their relationships at a certain stage of historical development. It is a self-sufficient social system based on the relationships of people in the process of personal needs. Such relationships are called social. Property, work, and family are the main elements that define society. Society is a fundamental category of philosophy, sociology, and anthropology. Ideal society is a society which is comfortable for human’s habitat. For many years, scientists and philosophers have been trying to find a key to the ideal form of society.
People’s equality is base of the ideal society. It should provide equal rights for everyone. Plato explores the concept of an ideal society in his works. He develops terms of fairness and ideas. Plato shows an analogy between the fair man and fair state.
Plato’s definition of justice is intended to justify social inequality, division of people into higher and lower from birth. Although people are born unequal, their duty is to live in peace, harmony and brotherhood. Ideal society must have at least four main virtues: wisdom, courage, prudence and justice. There is well organized system of training and education in Plato’s ideal state. The basic principle of the ideal Plato’s polity is justice. Domination of justice unites diverse, even disparate parts of the state in the whole reflected unity and harmony. Best state system should have a number of features of moral and political organization that would be able to provide solution of the most important problems.
Plato’s state should have the power of their organization and their means of protection. It should make a systematic supply of all members of society to have all material wealth. State should manage and guide the development of high spiritual activities creativity. Realization of all this tasks would mean realization of benefits as higher “ideas” ruling the world.
Individual freedoms are the legal basis of ideal society. Such idea is basic of liberalism. John Stuart Mill is one of the classical liberalists. According to him, ideal representative system can be based on a balance of two main classes (workers and employers) in the Parliament. He is not for revolutionary violence. He recognizes the ideal society without classes, based on cooperation. The aims of ideal society are strengthening of parliamentary system, free enterprise, democratic freedoms. Mill defends the absolute value of the human person (the person is more important than the state) and the equality of all people’s individual rights. The goal of liberalism is the maximum relaxation (softening) of various forms of state and social compulsion against the person. Liberalism advocates a peaceful way of reforming of social transformation. The freedom of the individual puts the state in dependence from the will and people’s ability to create and build a normal human community. Mill’s liberalism supports the organization of the state mechanism for democratic and legal principles. Mill believed that when the state replaced free individual and collective human activities with its own over-activity, then primarily interests of state bureaucracy were satisfied instead of people’s interests.
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To create ideal society there is should be attempt to establish justice and civil rights. Declaration of Independence is the first in the history act that proclaimed the idea of sovereignty. The right of the people to revolve comes from sovereignty.
According to Jefferson, government is established to protect people’s natural rights. The power of government comes from the consent of the people to obey. Because of this origin, people have the right to modify or eliminate this form of government. Jefferson’s political ideal is a democratic republic of farmers. As a republican, Jefferson understood political system in which direct control of state was exercised by the citizens themselves or through their elected representatives.
Developing Rousseau’s ideas about people’s sovereignty in the republican form of government, Jefferson see people’s power in the will’s right of the voters, in the extension of methods of citizens’ participation in public affairs, in the constant supervision of the work of state bodies by people. Jefferson is against slavery. Jefferson gives great importance to freedom of thought, expression, and spiritual life. He believes in force of human mind. Indisputable norm for Jefferson is speech freedom. Jefferson regards education of all people and future political leaders as a vital affair.
Such version of society is almost ideal because freedom of speech and thought are integral components of an ideal society. However, the possibility of all these factors in the modern world remains questionable.
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As a conclusion, one should remember that ideal society can be created on the principles of people’s equality, fairness, harmony, justice. It can use principles of liberalism as basis, providing individual freedoms, parliamentary system. And ideal society should by democratic.
But is it so necessary to find the key to ideal form of society? It is not so important whether the ideal society is achievable or not. This is secondary. The way to it is more urgent. It is important what one can do on the way to the goal. Refusing the desire to reach the ideal society is a criminal mistake of mankind. Difference between what it is and what one wants is the main driving force of humanity.
The meaning of life is in process of self-improvement, self-development, and development of the society. These processes are not possible when one is satisfied and does not need anything. Therefore, the ideal society leads to the degradation of humanity. A perfect society as a utopia, as a never attainable ideal leads to the prosperity of mankind. So, it is necessary that the process will never stop.