There are four classes of organic compounds. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Majority of the organisms use carbohydrates for energy. Carbohydrates are defined as molecules which comprise of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. There are two portions of hydrogen and one portion of oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates can be monosaccharide, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Similar to carbohydrates, lipids are also composed of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. However, the hydrogen to oxygen atoms ratio is greater in lipids compared to carbohydrates. Lipids comprise of fats, waxes, and steroids. Proteins are considered the most complicated of all organic compounds. They are made up of amino acids. Amino acids are made up of nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. Some amino acids contain traces of copper, iron, phosphorous, and sulphur atoms (Atkinson, 1994). The last category is nucleic acids and similar to proteins, they are extremely huge molecules. They are composed of minute units referred to as nucleotides. Every nucleotide has a phosphate group, carbohydrate molecule, and a molecule with nitrogen. Therefore, nucleotides are nitrogenous bases owing to the nitrogen molecule.
Types of Chemical Reactions
There are various types of chemical reactions. These include combustion, displacement, and synthesis reactions. During combustion, a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen. This results to carbon dioxide formation of carbon monoxide. The second chemical reaction is synthesis reaction. During the reaction, several simple substances come together and form a complicated substance (Levenspiel, 1972). For instance, hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water. Finally, decomposition reaction involves the breakdown of a complex substance. This results to the formation of simple substances. One reactant results to two or even more products. For instance, during decomposition, a water molecule forms oxygen and hydrogen after breaking down. Combustion, displacement, and synthesis reactions are mostly used to produce energy.